Table 2, from:

Nunn, C.L. (1999). The number of males in primate groups: a comparative test of the socioecological model. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 46: 1-13.

Species
Breeding Season Duration 
Number of Females 1
Number of Males 1
Duration of Mating 2
Expected Overlap 3
Observed Overlap 4
References for Observed Overlap
Alouatta caraya 365 2 1 3 0    
Alouatta palliata 365 8 2 3 0.7 7.5 K. Glander, pers. comm.
Alouatta seniculus 365 2.5 1.5 3 0.1 2.5 C. Crockett and T. Pope, personal communications
Ateles belzebuth 365 11.5 4        
Ateles paniscus 365 15.5 5 6 9.6    
Brachytele arachnoides 153 9 7 2 2.2 14.9 K. Strier, pers. comm.
Callithrix jacchus 365 2 2 28 2.4 0 Digby and Ferrari 1994; L. Digby, pers. comm.
Cebus apella 92 2.25 2 5 1.2 9.5 Janson 1984
Cebus capucinus 212 4 5.5     15.8 S. Perry and L. Rose, pers. comm.
Cebus olivaceous 124 6 1        
Cercocebus albigena 212 6 3 4 1.9    
Cercocebus galeritus 59 6 2        
Cercopithecus aethiops 92 4.25 3 33 92.9    
Cercopithecus ascanius 182 9.5 1 3 4.1    
Cercopithecus campbelli 62 4 1        
Cercopithecus mitis 120 18 1 2 12 1.5 M. Cords, pers. comm.
Cercopithecus neglectus 90 3 1        
Colobus badius 244 9.5 3.5 5 6.1    
Colobus guereza 365 3 1        
Erythrocebus patas 62 12.5 3 2 20.3 47.7 Harding and Olson 1986
Gorilla gorilla 365 3 1 2 0 0 D. Watts, pers. comm.
Lemur catta 38 4 4.5 1 1.5 0 Pereira 1991; Sauther 1991
Macaca fascicularis 123 6.75 4 15 54 66.6 van Noordwijk 1985
Macaca fuscata 46 9 3 11 97.4 56.5 Okayasu 1992
Macaca mulatta 82 9 2.5 9 62 39.8 Gordon 1981
Macaca nemestrina 365 22 3 13 47.1 41.7 Oi 1996
Macaca radiata 92 9 7 5 25.5    
Macaca silenus 365 7 1.75 18 14.6    
Macaca sinica 66 9.5 5 14 96.7    
Macaca sylvanus 76 10.5 9 14 95.3 35.9 J. Kuester, pers. comm.
Macaca thibetana 89 9.5 4.5        
Miopithecus talapoin 59 27 13 11 100    
Nasalis larvatus 62 5 1     0 Yeager 1990
Pan paniscus 365 8 8 15 13.6    
Pan troglodytes 365 35 10 14 76.1 7.8 D. Watts, pers. comm.
Papio anubis 365 34 14 6 30.8    
Papio cynocephalus 365 13 8 9 13.2 22.6 Hausfater 1975; Noe and Sluijter 1990; see also Altmann in press
Papio hamadryas 365 2 1 5 0.1    
Papio ursinus 365 14.5 7 9 16.7    
Presbytis entellus 365 12 1 6 5.7 4.2 V. Sommer, pers. comm. (with C. Borries and A. Srivastava)
Presbytis pileatus 120 4 1        
Presbytis senex 153 5 1        
Procolobus verus 89 2 1.25        
Saguinus fuscicollis 151 1 1.88 10 0 0 footnote 5  
Saguinus mystax 153 2 2     0 Garber et al. 1993
Saguinus oedipus 122 1 2 11 0 0 footnote 5  
Saimiri oerstedi 59 16 10 2 29.6 11.9 Boinski 1987b
Saimiri sciureus 61 23 7 2 45.1    
Theropithecus gelada 365 4 1 9 1.4    

1: Information taken from Mitani et al. (1996). Breeding season duration in days (birth seasons).

2: Duration of mating refers to number of days mating per ovulatory cycle. Information was taken from van Schaik et al. (in press). Blank cells indicate that no information was available.

3: Calculated following methods in Dunbar (1988, in press) as outlined in the Methods. Blank cells indicate no data was available for Test 2.

4: Blank cells indicate no information was available for Test 3; calculated as explained in the Methods.

5: Only one female in Mitani et al. (1996), so no overlap is possible (see Methods).

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Charles L. Nunn

Dept. of Anthropology
Peabody Museum
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Harvard University
Cambridge, MA 02138
cnunn (at) oeb.harvard.edu
Tel: (617) 495-4710