Appendix, from:
Nunn, C.L. 1999. The evolution ofexaggerated sexual swellings in primates and the graded signal hypothesis. AnimalBehaviour 58:229-246.

Species Exaggerated Swelling? (Y/N) Mean Number of Males Social System (SM/MM) 1 Duration of Sexual Activity (avg. days) Seasonal Breeding  (Y/N) 2
Allenopithecus nirgoviridis Y   M    
Cercocebus albigena Y 4.3 M 4 N
Cercocebus atterimus Y 3 M   N
Cercocebus galeritus Y 2 M    
Cercocebus torquatus Y   M   N
Cercopithecus aethiops N 4.1 M   Y
Cercopithecus ascanius N 1 S 3 Y
Cercopithecus campbelli N 1 S    
Cercopithecus diana N 1 S    
Cercopithecus mitis N 1 S 2 N
Cercopithecus neglectus N 1 S   N
Colobus angolensis N 2.4 M    
Colobus badius Y 4.4 M 5 N
Colobus guereza N 1.5 S   N
Colobus kirkii Y   M    
Colobus polykomos N 2.8 M    
Colobus satanas N 2.5 M    
Erythrocebus patas N 1.5 S 1 Y
Gorilla gorilla N 1.5 S 2 N
Hylobates agilis N   S   N
Hylobates concolor N 1 S   N
Hylobates hoolock N 1 S   N
Hylobates klossi N 1 S   N
Hylobates lar N 1 S 4 N
Hylobates moloch N   S   N
Hylobates muelleri N   S   N
Hylobates pileatus N   S   N
Hylobates syndactylus N   S   N
Macaca arctoides N   M   N
Macaca assamensis N 3 M   N
Macaca cyclopis Y 1.8 M   Y
Macaca fascicularis Y 4.7 M 15 N
Macaca fuscata Y 3.4 M 11 Y
Macaca maurus Y 4 M 15 N
Macaca mulatta Y 4.5 M 9 Y
Macaca nemestrina Y 2.4 M 13 N
Macaca nigra Y   M 9 N
Macaca radiata N 7.3 M 5 Y
Macaca silenus Y 1.6 M 18 N
Macaca sinica N 2.7 M 14 Y
Macaca sylvanus Y 4.7 M 14 Y
Macaca thibetana N 5.5 M   Y
Macaca tonkeana Y   M 10 N
Mandrillus leucophaeus Y   M   N
Mandrillus sphinx Y 1.5 M   N
Miopithecus talapoin Y 13 M 11 Y
Nasalis larvatus N 1 S   N
Pan paniscus Y 6.7 M 15 N
Pan troglodytes Y 6.7 M 14 N
Papio anubis Y 7.2 M 6 N
Papio cynocephalus Y 7 M 9 N
Papio hamadryas Y 1.5 M 5 N
Papio papio Y   M    
Papio ursinus Y 6.7 M 9 N
Pongo pygmaeus N 1 S   N
Presbytis cristata N 1 S   N
Presbytis entellus N 2.6 M 6 N
Presbytis francoisi N 1 S    
Presbytis johnii N 1.3 S    
Presbytis melalophos N 1.2 S    
Presbytis obscura N 2.5 M   N
Presbytis pileatus N 1 S    
Presbytis potenziani N 1 S    
Presbytis rubicunda N 1 S    
Presbytis vetulus N 1 S   N
Procolobus verus Y 2 M   N
Pygathrix brelichi N 1.3 S    
Pygathrix nemaeus N   M    
Simias concolor N 1 S    
Theropithecus gelada Y 1.5 M 9 N

1 S: single-male; M: multimale.

2 Breeding seasonality defined as >67% of births in a single three month period. Data taken from van Schaik et al. in press.



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