Unpublished comparative dataset used in:

Nunn, C.L. (1999). Collective action, free-riders, and male extragroup conflict. In: Primate Males, P.M. Kappeler, ed., pp. 192-204. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Species
Social System 1
Number of Males 2
Testes Residual 2
Male Loud Calls
Reference for Loud Calls
Lemur catta
MM
5.8
0.367
Y
Macedonia 1993; pers. obs.
Eulemur fulvus
MM
3.2
0.247
Y
Sussman and Richard 1974; M. Rasmussen, pers. comm.
Varecia variegata
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Macedonia and Taylor 1985; pers. obs.
Lepilemur mustelinus
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Charles-Dominique 1974; Warren and Crompton 1997
Microcebus murinus
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Charles-Dominique 1974
Phaner furcifer
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Charles-Dominique 1978
Avahi laniger
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Harcourt 1991
Propithecus verreauxi
MM
 
 
N
Sussman and Richard 1974; D. Brockman pers. comm.
Indri indri
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Pollack 1986
Loris tardigradus
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Charles-Dominique 1978
Perodicticus potto
SM/MO
 
 
N
Charles-Dominique 1974
Galago alleni
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Charles-Dominique 1974
Galagoides demidoff
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Charles-Dominique 1974
Galagoides zanzibaricus
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Harcourt and Nash, 1986
Otolemur crassicaudatus
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Charles-Dominique 1974
Euoticus elegantulus
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Charles-Dominique 1974
Galago senegalensis
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Charles-Dominique 1974
Tarsius bancanus
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Crompton and Andau 1987
Callithrix argentata
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Snowdon 1993
Callithrix jacchus
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Epple 1968
Cebuella pygmaea
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Soini 1987; Snowdon 1993
Saguinus bicolor
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Snowdon 1993
Saguinus fuscicollis
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Soini 1987, T. Windfelder, pers. comm.
Saguinus imperator
SM/MO
 
 
Y
T. Windfelder, pers. comm.
Saguinus labiatus
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Snowdon 1993
Saguinus midas
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Thorington, 1968
Saguinus mystax
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Snowdon 1993
Saguinus oedipus
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Epple 1968
Leontopithecus chrysomelas
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Snowdon 1993
Leontopithecus chrysopygus
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Snowdon 1993
Leontopithecus rosalia
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Epple 1968; Snowdon 1993
Callimico goeldii
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Snowdon 1993
Cebus albifrons
MM
3.8
 
N
Freese and Oppenheimer 1981
Cebus apella
MM
3.4
-0.256
N
Freese and Oppenheimer 1981
Cebus capucinus
MM
2.1
 
N
Freese and Oppenheimer 1981
Cebus olivaceous
MM
1.2
 
N
Freese and Oppenheimer 1981
Aotus trivirgatus
SM/MO
 
 
N
Robinson et al. 1987
Callicebus moloch
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Robinson 1979
Callicebus torquatus
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Kinzey and Robinson 1983
Saimiri sciureus
MM
2.7
-0.153
N
Cheney 1987
Pithecia monachus
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Robinson et al. 1987
Pithecia pithecia
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Robinson et al. 1987
Alouatta fusca
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Chiarello 1995
Alouatta palliata
MM
2.9
0.284
Y
Southwick 1962; Chivers 1969
Alouatta seniculus
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Sekulic 1982
Ateles geoffroyi
MM
4
-0.016
Y
Fedigan and Baxter 1984
Brachyteles arachnoides
MM
7
 
Y
Nishimura et al. 1988
Macaca fascicularis
MM
4.7
0.551
N
van Schaik and van Noordwijk 1985; van Schaik pers. comm.
Macaca fuscata
MM
7.4
 
N
Kawanaka 1973; Green 1981; Takahata et al. 1994
Macaca maurus
MM
4
 
Y
N. Bynum, pers. comm.
Macaca mulatta
MM
4.3
0.53
N
Southwick 1962; Vessey 1968
Macaca nemestrina
MM
2.4
0.732
N
Whitten and Whitten 1982; Caldecott 1986
Macaca nigra
MM
 
 
Y
N. Bynum, pers. comm.
Macaca radiata
MM
7.3
0.673
N
Hohmann 1989
Macaca silenus
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Sugiyama 1968; Hohman and Herzog 1985; Green 1981
Macaca sylvanus
MM
4.3
 
N
Deag 1973
Macaca tonkeanna
MM
 
 
Y
Masataka and Thierry 1993; N. Bynum, pers. comm.
Cercocebus albigena
MM
4.4
 
Y
Chalmers 1968; Struhsaker and Leland 1979
Cercocebus aterrimus
MM
3
0.045
Y
Horn 1987
Cercocebus galeritus
MM
2.5
 
Y
Quris 1980
Papio anubis
MM
7.2
0.716
N
Hall and DeVore 1965; Ransom 1981
Papio hamadryas
SM/MO
 
 
N
Kummer 1968
Papio ursinus
MM
8.5
0.568
N
Hall and DeVore 1965; Hamilton et al. 1975
Mandrillus leucophaeus
SM/MO
 
 
N
Gartlan 1970
Theropithecus gelada
SM/MO
 
 
N
Aich et al. 1990
Cercopithecus aethiops
MM
4.9
0.126
N
Cheney 1981
Cercopithecus ascanius
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Marler 1973; Struhsaker and Leland 1979; Struhsaker 1980
Cercopithecus campbelli
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Bourliere et al., 1970; Hunkeler et al. 1972
Cercopithecus cephus
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Gautier and Gautier 1977; Gautier 1988
Cercopithecus diana
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Zuberbühler et al. 1997
Cercopithecus erythrogaster
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Oates 1985
Cercopithecus hamlyni
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Gautier 1988
Cercopithecus lhoesti
SM/MO
 
 
N
Gautier 1988
Cercopithecus mitis
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Marler 1973
Cercopithecus mona
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Gautier 1988
Cercopithecus neglectus
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Gautier 1988
Cercopithecus nictitans
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Gautier 1988
Cercopithecus petaurista
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Gautier 1988
Cercopithecus preussi
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Gautier 1988
Cercopithecus solatus
SM/MO
 
 
N
Gautier 1988
Miopithecus talapoin
MM
13
-0.107
N
Gautier 1988
Erythrocebus patas
SM/MO
 
 
N
Gautier 1988
Presbytis comata
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Ruhiyat 1983
Presbytis entellus
MM
2.5
-0.174
Y
Ripley 1967
Presbytis geei
SM/MO
 
 
N
Mukhergee 1978
Presbytis johnii
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Poirier, 1969
Presbytis melalophos
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Gurmaya, 1986
Presbytis pileatus
SM/MO
 
 
N
Mukhergee 1978; Stanford 1991
Presbytis potenziani
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Tilson and Tenaza, 1976
Presbytis senex
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Rudran, 1973; Hohmann, 1990
Nasalis larvatus
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Yeager 1991, 1992
Simias concolor
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Tenaza 1989
Colobus badius
MM
4.4
 
Y
Struhsaker 1975; Struhsaker and Leland 1979
Colobus guereza
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Marler 1969; Struhsaker and Leland 1979
Colobus polykomos
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Hill and Booth 1957; Marler 1970
Procolobus verus
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Oates and Whitesides 1990
Hylobates agilis
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Gittens 1980; Mitani 1988
Hylobates concolor
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Haimoff et al. 1987
Hylobates klossi
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Tenaza 1975
Hylobates lar
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Raemaekers and Raemaekers 1984
Hylobates moloch
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Kappeler 1984
Hylobates muelleri
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Mitani 1985
Hylobates syndactylus
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Chivers 1976
Pongo pygmaeus
SM/MO
 
 
Y
MacKinnon 1974
Pan troglodytes
MM
6.7
0.645
Y
Marler and Hobbett 1975; Marler and Tenaza 1977; Goodall 1986
Gorilla gorilla
SM/MO
 
 
Y
Schaller 1963

1 MM: multimale social system; SM/MO: single-male social system (polygynous and monogamous categories of single-male species combined for the present analyses).

2 Values given only for species with a multimale social system, as these are the only species used in the analyses.

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