Appendix B, Part 1, from:

Nunn, C.L. and C.P. van Schaik (in press, approx. 2001). Reconstructing the behavioral ecology of extinct primates. In: J.M. Plavcan, W.L. Jungers, R.F. Kay, and C.P. van Schaik, eds., Reconstructing Behavior in the Fossil Record. New York: Plenum.
 

Knowable "K" Variables (Syndromes):
 
Species
Radiation 1
Female Body Mass 
Activity Period 2
Substrate 3
Habitat 4
Diet 5
Lemur catta
LM
2.68
D
T
W
FR
Eulemur coronatus
LM
1.69
D
A
W
FR
Eulemur fulvus
LM
2.4
D
A
W
FR
Eulemur macaco
LM
2.49
D
A
W
FR
Eulemur mongoz
LM
1.66
D
A
W
FR
Eulemur rubriventer
LM
2.14
D
A
W
FR
Hapalemur aureus
LM
1.5
D
A
W
FO
Hapelemur griseus
LM
0.89
D
A
W
FO
Hapelemur simus
LM
1.3
D
A
W
FO
Varecia variegata
LM
3.51
D
A
W
FR
Lepilemur mustelinus
LM
0.66
N
A
W
FO
Microcebus murinus
LM
0.06
N
A
W
FR
Microcebus rufus
LM
0.05
N
A
W
FR
Microcebus coquereli
LM
0.26
N
A
W
FR
Cheirogaleuse medius
LM
0.28
N
A
W
FR
Cheirogaleuse major
LM
0.44
N
A
W
FR
Allocebus trichotis
LM
0.09
N
A
W
I
Phaner furcifer
LM
0.33
N
A
W
G
Avahi laniger
LM
1.32
N
A
W
FO
Propithecus diadema
LM
5.9
D
A
W
FO
Propithecus tattersalli
LM
3.17
D
A
W
FR
Propithecus verreauxi
LM
3.7
D
A
W
FR
Indri indri
LM
6.25
D
A
W
FO
Daubentonia madagascarensis
LM
2.52
N
A
W
I
Loris tardigradis
LO
0.19
N
A
W
I
Nycticebus coucang
LO
1.2
N
A
W
FR
Nycticebus pygmaeus
LO
0.38
N
A
W
Arctocebus calabarensis
LO
0.3
N
A
W
I
Perodicticus potto
LO
0.99
N
A
W
FR
Galagoides alleni
LO
0.3
N
A
W
FR
Galagoides demidoff
LO
0.07
N
A
W
I
Galagoides zanzibaricus
LO
0.14
N
A
W
I
Otolemur crassicaudatus
LO
1.24
N
A
W
G
Otolemur garnetti
LO
1.03
N
A
W
I
Euoticus elegantulus
LO
0.29
N
A
W
G
Euoticus inustus
LO
0.21
N
A
W
I
Galago granti
LO
N
A
W
Galago moholi
LO
0.16
N
A
W
I
Galago senegalensis
LO
0.21
N
A
W
I
Tarsius bancanus
TR
0.13
N
A
W
I
Tarsius syrichta
TR
0.12
N
A
W
I
Tarsius pumilus
TR
N
A
W
I
Tarsius spectrum
TR
0.2
N
A
W
I
Callithrix argentata
NW
0.36
D
A
W
FR
Callithrix humeralifer
NW
0.38
D
A
W
FR
Callithrix jacchus
NW
0.24
D
A
W
G
Cebuella pygmaea
NW
0.12
D
A
W
G
Saguinus bicolor
NW
0.43
D
A
W
FR
Saguinus fuscicollis
NW
0.41
D
A
W
FR
Saguinus imperator
NW
0.45
D
A
W
FR
Saguinus inustus
NW
0.8
D
A
W
Saguinus labiatus
NW
0.52
D
A
W
FR
Saguinus leucopus
NW
0.49
D
A
W
FR
Saguinus midas
NW
0.52
D
A
W
FR
Saguinus mystax
NW
0.58
D
A
W
FR
Saguinus nigricollis
NW
0.46
D
A
W
FR
Saguinus oedipus
NW
0.5
D
A
W
FR
Saguinus tripartitus
NW
D
A
W
FR
Leontopithecus chrysomelas
NW
0.53
D
A
W
FR
Leontopithecus chrysopygus
NW
D
A
W
FR
Leontopithecus rosalia
NW
0.48
D
A
W
FR
Callimico goeldii
NW
0.58
D
A
W
FR
Cebus albifrons
NW
1.81
D
A
W
FR
Cebus apella
NW
2.45
D
A
W
FR
Cebus capucinus
NW
2.28
D
A
W
FR
Cebus olivaceous
NW
1.59
D
A
W
FR
Aotus trivirgatus
NW
0.92
N
A
W
FR
Aotus azarae
NW
0.78
N
A
W
FR
Callicebus brunneus
NW
0.85
D
A
W
FR
Callicebus personatus
NW
1.38
D
A
W
FR
Callicebus moloch
NW
0.99
D
A
W
FR
Callicebus torquatus
NW
1.31
D
A
W
FR
Saimiri oerstedi
NW
0.6
D
A
W
FR
Saimiri sciureus
NW
0.79
D
A
W
I
Pithecia albicans
NW
D
A
W
FR
Pithecia hirsuta
NW
D
A
W
FR
Pithecia monachus
NW
2.17
D
A
W
FR
Pithecia pithecia
NW
1.51
D
A
W
FR
Cacajao calvus
NW
2.88
D
A
W
FR
Cacajao melanocephalus
NW
2.74
D
A
W
FR
Cacajao rubicundus
NW
D
A
W
FR
Chiropotes albinasus
NW
2.52
D
A
W
FR
Chiropotes satanas
NW
2.66
D
A
W
FR
Alouatta belzebul
NW
5.18
D
A
W
Alouatta caraya
NW
5.41
D
A
W
FO
Alouatta fusca
NW
4.53
D
A
W
FO
Alouatta palliata
NW
5.6
D
A
W
FO
Alouatta pigra
NW
6.29
D
A
W
FO
Alouatta seniculus
NW
6.02
D
A
W
FO
Ateles belzebuth
NW
8.47
D
A
W
FR
Ateles fusciceps
NW
8.8
D
A
W
FR
Ateles geoffroyi
NW
6.7
D
A
W
FR
Ateles paniscus
NW
8.59
D
A
W
FR
Brachyteles arachnoides
NW
8.38
D
A
W
FO
Lathothrix flavicauda
NW
D
A
W
FR
Lathothrix lagothricha
NW
5.54
D
A
W
FR
Macaca arctoides
OW
8.4
D
T
W
FR
Macaca assamensis
OW
6.7
D
A
W
FR
Macaca cyclopis
OW
4.95
D
T
W
FR
Macaca fascicularis
OW
3.12
D
A
W
FR
Macaca fuscata
OW
9.1
D
T
W
FR
Macaca maurus
OW
5.1
D
A
W
FR
Macaca mulatta
OW
5.37
D
T
W
FR
Macaca nemestrina
OW
6.35
D
A
W
FR
Macaca nigra
OW
4.69
D
T
W
FR
Macaca ochreata
OW
D
A
W
FR
Macaca radiata
OW
3.85
D
A
W
FR
Macaca silenus
OW
5
D
A
W
FR
Macaca sinica
OW
3.4
D
A
W
FR
Macaca sylvanus
OW
10
D
T
W
FR
Macaca thibetana
OW
10.1
D
T
W
FO
Macaca tonkeana
OW
8.64
D
T
W
Cercocebus albigena
OW
6.4
D
A
W
FR
Cercocebus atterimus
OW
5.64
D
A
W
FR
Cercocebus galeritus
OW
5.47
D
T
W
FR
Cercocebus torquatus
OW
6.33
D
T
W
FR
Papio anubis
OW
14.1
D
T
O
FO
Papio anubis
OW
14.1
D
T
W
FR
Papio cynocephalus
OW
13.61
D
T
O
FR
Papio hamadryas
OW
9.98
D
T
O
FO
Papio papio
OW
13
D
T
W
FR
Papio ursinus
OW
14.52
D
T
O
FR
Mandrillus leucophaeus
OW
10
D
T
W
FR
Mandrillus sphinx
OW
11.5
D
T
W
FR
Theropithecus gelada
OW
11.7
D
T
O
FO
Cercopithecus aethiops
OW
3.26
D
T
O
FR
Cercopithecus ascanius
OW
3.3
D
A
W
FR
Cercopithecus campbelli
OW
2.7
D
T
W
FR
Cercopithecus cephus
OW
2.88
D
A
W
FR
Cercopithecus denti
OW
D
A
W
Cercopithecus diana
OW
3.9
D
A
W
FR
Cercopithecus dryas
OW
2.25
D
W
Cercopithecus erythogaster
OW
2.4
D
A
W
FR
Cercopithecus erythrotis
OW
D
A
W
FR
Cercopithecus hamlyni
OW
3.36
D
A
W
FR
Cercopithecus lhoesti
OW
4.7
D
T
W
FR
Cercopithecus mitis
OW
4.23
D
A
W
FR
Cercopithecus mona
OW
2.5
D
A
W
FR
Cercopithecus neglectus
OW
3.96
D
T
W
FR
Cercopithecus nictitans
OW
4.22
D
A
W
FR
Cercopithecus petaurista
OW
2.9
D
A
W
FR
Cercopithecus pogonias
OW
3.02
D
A
W
FR
Cercopithecus preussi
OW
D
T
W
FR
Cercopithecus solatus
OW
3.5
D
T
W
Cercopithecus wolfi
OW
2.76
D
A
W
FR
Miopithecus talapoin
OW
1.12
D
A
W
FR
Allenopithecus nirgoviridis
OW
3.25
D
T
W
FR
Erythrocebus patas
OW
5.9
D
T
O
FR
Presbytis aurata
OW
D
A
W
FO
Presbytis comata
OW
6.66
D
A
W
FO
Presbytis cristata
OW
5.7
D
A
W
FO
Presbytis entellus
OW
11.05
D
T
W
FO
Presbytis francoisi
OW
D
A
W
FO
Presbytis frontata
OW
5.66
D
A
W
Presbytis geei
OW
9.5
D
A
W
FR
Presbytis johnii
OW
10.9
D
A
W
FO
Presbytis melalophos
OW
6.32
D
A
W
FR
Presbytis obscura
OW
6.47
D
A
W
FO
Presbytis phayrei
OW
6.9
D
A
W
FO
Presbytis pileatus
OW
5.14
D
A
W
FO
Presbytis potenziani
OW
6.4
D
A
W
FO
Presbytis rubicunda
OW
5.7
D
A
W
FO
Presbytis senex
OW
5.9
D
A
W
FO
Pygathrix avunculus
OW
8.5
D
A
W
FR
Pygathrix brelichi
OW
D
A
W
FO
Pygathrix roxellanae
OW
10.3
D
T
W
FO
Pygathrix nemaeus
OW
4.1
D
A
W
FO
Nasalis larvatus
OW
9.87
D
A
W
FO
Simias concolor
OW
7.1
D
A
W
FO
Colobus angolensis
OW
7.4
D
A
W
FO
Colobus badius
OW
6.77
D
A
W
FO
Colobus guereza
OW
7.83
D
A
W
FO
Colobus kirkii
OW
D
A
W
FO
Colobus polykomos
OW
7.13
D
A
W
FO
Colobus satanas
OW
9.5
D
A
W
FR
Procolobus verus
OW
4.1
D
A
W
FO
Hylobates agilis
AP
5.7
D
A
W
FR
Hylobates concolor
AP
5.8
D
A
W
FO
Hylobates hoolock
AP
6.5
D
A
W
FR
Hylobates klossii
AP
5.9
D
A
W
FR
Hylobates lar
AP
5.3
D
A
W
FR
Hylobates moloch
AP
5.7
D
A
W
FR
Hylobates muelleri
AP
D
A
W
FR
Hylobates pileatus
AP
D
A
W
FR
Hylobates syndactylus
AP
10.6
D
A
W
FO
Pongo pygmaeus
AP
38.5
D
A
W
FR
Pan troglodytes
AP
33.2
D
T
O
FR
Pan troglodytes
AP
33.2
D
T
W
FR
Pan paniscus
AP
33.2
D
T
W
FR
Gorilla gorilla
AP
97.7
D
T
W
FO

1: LM: lemurs; LO: lorisids; NW: New World monkeys; OW: Old World monkeys; AP: apes.

2: D: diurnal; N: nocturnal.

3: A: arboreal, T: terrestrial.

4: O: open habitat; W: wooded habitat.

5: FR: frugivore; FO: folivore; I: insectivore; G: gummivore.